A roof is the upper surface that covers a room, under a floor slab or a deck. Roofs are often used to hide these structural elements but also to decorate or paint if the surface is flat, or to highlight the structural elements by giving them a special relief.
Wooden ceilings are discontinuous, distinguishing themselves from humid ones, such as gypsum, which are continuous. They incorporate a double structure that obtains a better leveling and rigidity of the surface and a structural grid that allows to fix luminaires, diffusers, etc. They are made up of the profiling and the plates.
The profiles are suspended from the floor slab, usually forming an order of primary profiles and another secondary transversal to it; they can be seen or hidden according to the edges of the ceiling panels. They are usually made of galvanized rolled steel and cold profiled in the shape of an inverted “T”. The exposed part can receive a special finish (lacquered, painted, etc.). The profiles are assembled together and embedded in their ends without the need for additional parts or accessories.
They are usually standard square and rectangular pieces, around the following dimensions: 1500 x 1000, 1500 x 1200, 1500 x 870, 1200 x 1200, 1200 x 1000, 1200 x 870. The following types of plates are distinguished:
– Smooth wooden plates
made of lightweight plywood with veneer cladding with machined edges. Chipboard and coated fibreboard are equally valid but are heavier.
– Wooden grid plates
Formed by solid wood slats that cross to half wood, which incorporates a stiffener frame of greater thickness. Due to the transparency with respect to the bottom (the forging) this must be darkened or hidden to achieve the effect of concealment. When the slats are high (from 5 cm), this problem is avoided, as it is the edge itself that hides the views of the plenum.
In reality, it is not a complete ceiling system, as there are no manufacturers who provide the hanging elements or the special elements, and the designer himself has to define these elements. If acoustic gain is required, a black fiberglass blanket should be placed behind.
The most common species are ramín, oak, red oak, maple, poplar, hemlock, cherry, mahogany, cedar.
– Linear plates of wood slats
Formed by wooden slats placed on the face, with a small gap or joint between them that can be filled with another matching material (black or other contrasting wood). If the joint is closed, the slats are joined with a tongue and groove assembly or with back flashing.
If greater acoustic insulation is desired, a black sheet should be installed.
fiberglass absorbent behind the slats. They are installed on standard 15-16″ T-bar lengths supplied with clips holding the plates.
– Linear Wood Strip Plates
These panels also provide a dynamic yet more moderate feel than linear slatted plates. They need to incorporate a spacer rail or hollow backer blocks or pegs. They allow for different designs playing with the size of the rails and strips. If greater sound absorption is required, a black fiberglass blanket can be placed behind.
– Perforated wood plates (acoustic)
Formed by a core of medium density fibreboard with low formaldehyde emission, which incorporates a decorative noble face of paper impregnated with melamine resins, and which is perforated with a grid of holes. The face is formed by strips separated by grooves according to different formats. It is placed on a wooden or metallic structure and is usually lined with acoustic felt and wool of insulating material.
– Metal profiling (main and secondary) – Metal hanging hooks
– Solid wood panels
– Wood-based panels
– Thermal insulation: the ceilings must provide the data specified in the standard NBE-CT-79 (Basic Standard for the Building Thermal Conditions. Its thermal transmission coefficient, together with those corresponding to the rest of the building’s enveloping surfaces, must maintain the value of the building’s overall transmission coefficient, kG, at a reasonably small level. This value depends on several factors: climatic zone, type of building and form and type of fuel. This standard will be replaced in the future by the Technical Building Code – CTE (see Block Legislation).
– Acoustic insulation: ceilings must provide the data specified in the standard NBE-CA-88 (Basic Standard for Building Acoustic Conditions). Some manufacturers have carried out tests to find out their acoustic data. This standard will be replaced in the future by the Technical Building Code.