Way In Building & Civil Construction

At this point, we will only deal with roofing materials used with a wooden structure, remembering also that new roofing materials are constantly appearing on the market with different advantages and disadvantages that will have to be analyzed in each particular project.

Roofing tiles:
This cladding, depending on the type of tile and its construction, can be used for slopes greater than or equal to 15o. Minor slopes are not admissible since the cladding that is already permeable to air will also be permeable to water. It only offers a guarantee against rain when the water can drain quickly and without hindrance until it reaches the eaves. The minimum slope values set in accordance with the type and class of coating adopted especially in eaves where the greatest amount of water circulates must be respected.

The measurement of the inclination of a roof is defined by the position of the rafters, the tiles are naturally slightly less sloping, whose inclination will depend on the thickness of the tiles and the greater or lesser coating that is given to them.
The slats on which the tiles will be nailed must have at least three sharp edges so that they can rest well on them and at any point the peaks of the tiles can find good retention.

The section of the slats will depend on the separation of the rafters and the weight of the deck and must support the weight of an operator working on them.

Roofing tiles are generally made of hand or mechanically moulded ceramic materials, although metal roofing tiles and glass roofing tiles have recently appeared on the market.

They have the advantage of being non-combustible, good insulators and of avoiding the formation of condensation water, but they have on the other hand to be heavy and icy as the absorption of water increases due to the porosity of the material, for this reason they are manufactured with a glazed exterior surface. There are great variety of forms and according to them will be the form of placement.

Flat tiles have a small protrusion that allows them to be fixed to the batten. They are placed superimposed in 2 or 3 layers to found joint. A row of tiles in the longitudinal direction is hooked onto the lower batten, butted and uncoated. The next row is arranged in the same way, but taking care that the joints alternate with those of the previous row. The first row of tiles in the lower part of the roof forms the eaves. Each row is placed with the previous one, leaving a view of the tile equivalent to a third of its length, so that the roof will be composed of three thicknesses of tile. The convenient inclination for the flat tile, varies between 40o and 60o.

The colonials are completely curved, some of them presenting the concave side formed by the canals and others, the convex, covering the former. It is very used but has the disadvantage that it admits little inclination (15o to 30o), because as the tiles are placed on a simple slatted, they are exposed to sliding.
Normandas or flamingos have alternately concave and convex surfaces with an elongated S-shaped section. They have a strong heel on the upper part which allows them to be hooked into the slatting and thus gives a steep slope to the roof. They are placed with a covering of about 5com and the joints are taken with cement mortar.
The French ones (marsellas) are much lighter and less icy. They are placed on spaced slats, the length of the tiles. Sometimes a continuous planking is used and a membrane is placed underneath it for greater security against the filtrations of the rains, other times they are placed on planks with layers of mortars. A very insulating but very heavy roof is formed by a layer of tiles or bricks from 2 to 3cm thick, supported on slats, spreading over it the layer of mortar to seat the tiles.

Structuring of Wooden Roofs and Accessories Wood and Iron Constructions
Glass shingles are available in a wide variety of models. They are placed at the same time as ceramic tiles and are used to give light to attics or to increase natural light in sheds and sheds. They are resistant to atmospheric agents and do not require any care. Their use is limited by considerations of form because it breaks the continuity of the roof.
Concrete roof tiles: for each type of roof tile there are the corresponding parts for the ridge, ventilation roof tiles as well as openings for the steam ducts, for the windows, etc.

Roof tiles are not porous, humidity cannot be filtered as in the case of fired roof tiles, for this reason sufficient ventilation tiles must be provided. The dense structure of the tiles avoids damage caused by frost and are therefore considered to be very suitable for regions with i


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